Soils and Foundations Handbook วิศวกรรมปฐพีและฐานรากIntroduction
The purpose of this handbook is to provide Geotechnical Engineers with a guide
to the proper procedures in the performance of geotechnical activities for the Florida
Department of Transportation. Specifically, this handbook is intended to define the tasks
involved in performing a subsurface investigation and the geotechnical aspects of the
design and construction of roadways and roadway structures. General guidelines are
presented covering the geotechnical phases of a typical project.
As each project presents unique considerations and requires engineering judgment
based on a thorough knowledge of the individual situation, this handbook was not
originally intended to serve as the geotechnical scope of services on individual projects.
However, in 2002, the Standard Scope and Staff Hour Estimation Task Team elected to
use this handbook as the standard minimum scope of work. Therefore, the scope of
services for each project may supercede the minimum scope of work outlined in this
handbook. The scope of services dictates the specific practices, which are to be used on a
particular project. Additionally, the scope defines the required interaction between the
Department’s Geotechnical Engineer and those performing the geotechnical work.
The design and construction of a roadway and related structures is a complex
operation involving the participation of many department units and outside agencies. The
key to the successful completion of the project is communication. It is essential that good
communication, coordination and interaction exist between the Geotechnical Engineer
and these other units and agencies. This interaction should continue throughout all
project phases to ensure a reliable and cost-effective design and minimize construction
This handbook is designed to present information in the same sequence, as it
would occur during project development for a design-bid-construct project. A general
outline of the tasks, which should be performed by a Geotechnical Engineer during a
project, is shown in Sections 1.1.1 through 1.1.4. The details of these tasks are discussed
and amplified in subsequent chapters. Chapter 11 discusses the process for a design build
project. A general outline of the tasks, which should be performed by a Geotechnical
Engineer for a design build project, is shown in Sections 11.1 through 11.3 .
Finally, it should be noted that this is intended neither as an all-encompassing and
comprehensive procedural handbook, nor as a design handbook. Methods of subsurface
investigation and of analyzing data and solving problems are not discussed in detail. The
lists of references at the end of each chapter are but a few of the many sources of
information that will provide the engineer with greater insight into investigation
procedures and analysis and problem solving techniques. Further assistance is available
from the District Geotechnical Engineer, the State Geotechnical Materials Engineer in
Gainesville, and the State Geotechnical Engineer and State Construction Geotechnical
Engineer in Tallahassee.1.1 Geotechnical Tasks in Typical Highway Projects
1.1.1 Planning, Development, and Engineering Phase
- Prepare geotechnical scope of services for consultant projects.
- Assist in corridor and route selection.
- Review existing information.
- Perform field reconnaissance of site and existing structures.
- Plan and supervise field investigation program, field and laboratory
- Analyze all data available.
- Prepare preliminary geotechnical report summarizing available data and
- Identify potential construction requirements and problems (predrilling
requirements, vibration and sound impacts).
1.1.2 Project Design Phase
- Perform additional field investigations and provide additional or revised
recommendations if called for in geotechnical report or if project has
substantially changed since earlier investigations.
- Assist structural engineer in interpreting and applying geotechnical
recommendations to design and special provisions and/or supplemental
- Design and if applicable perform load test programs or special
instrumentation monitoring as deemed necessary.
- Review plans, special provisions and/or supplemental specifications.
- Identify construction activities and techniques to minimize potential
construction requirements and problems (predrilling requirements,
vibration and sound impacts).
1.1.3 Construction Phase
- Establish construction criteria for geotechnical portions of project.
- Inspect construction procedures to assure compliance with design and
- Assist in design, installation, performance, monitoring, and evaluation of
load test programs and/or instrumentation systems.
- Assist in solution of unforeseen foundation and/or roadway soils
1.1.4 Post-Construction Phase
- Assist in assessment of and provide solutions to roadway and structure
maintenance problems, which are related to the geotechnical
characteristics of the site.
- Summarize construction procedures and/or problems and any changes in
design made during construction.
- Provide information to State Geotechnical files for reference during the
design of future projects.
Soils and Foundations Handbook วิศวกรรมปฐพีและฐานราก
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