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Soils and Foundations Handbook April 2004
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Soils and Foundations Handbook
April 2004

State Materials Office
Gainesville, Florida


Table of Contents

Chapter 1 ... 1
1 Introduction ... 1
1.1 Geotechnical Tasks in Typical Highway Projects.................................................. 2
1.1.1 Planning, Development, and Engineering Phase ...................................... 2
1.1.2 Project Design Phase................................................................................. 2
1.1.3 Construction Phase.................................................................................... 2
1.1.4 Post-Construction Phase............................................................................ 3

Chapter 2 ... 4
2 Subsurface Investigation Procedures ........................................................................ 4
2.1 Review of Project Requirements ..................................................................... 4
2.2 Office Review of Available Data .................................................................... 4
2.2.1 Topographic Maps..................................................................................... 4
2.2.2 Aerial Photographs.................................................................................... 5
2.2.3 Geological Maps and Reports ................................................................... 5
2.2.4 Natural Resources Conservation Service Surveys .................................... 5
2.2.5 Potentiometric Surface Map...................................................................... 5
2.2.6 Adjacent Projects....................................................................................... 5
2.3 Field Reconnaissance ...................................................................................... 6
2.4 Field Exploration Methods .............................................................................. 6
2.4.1 Test Pits and Trenches............................................................................... 6
2.4.2 Boreholes................................................................................................... 6
2.4.2.1 Auger Borings..................................................................................... 7
2.4.2.2 Hollow-Stem Auger Borings .............................................................. 7
2.4.2.3 Wash Borings...................................................................................... 7
2.4.2.4 Percussion Drilling.............................................................................. 7
2.4.2.5 Rotary Drilling.................................................................................... 7
2.4.2.6 Coring ................................................................................................. 8
2.4.3 Soundings .................................................................................................. 8
2.4.4 Geophysical Methods................................................................................ 8
2.4.4.1 Seismic Refraction and Reflection...................................................... 8
2.4.4.2 Resistivity ........................................................................................... 9
2.4.4.3 Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) ....................................................... 9
2.4.5 Soil Sampling ............................................................................................ 9
2.4.5.1 Bag Bulk Samples............................................................................... 9
2.4.5.2 Split-Barrel.......................................................................................... 9
2.4.5.3 Shelby Tube ........................................................................................ 9
2.4.5.4 Piston Samplers................................................................................. 10
2.4.5.4.1 Stationary.................................................................................... 10
2.4.5.4.2 Floating....................................................................................... 10
2.4.5.4.3 Retractable .................................................................................. 10
2.4.5.5 Rock Core Sampling......................................................................... 11
2.4.5.5.1 Double Tube Core Barrel ........................................................... 11
2.4.5.5.2 Triple Tube Core Barrel ............................................................. 11
2.5 References ... 14
2.6 Specifications and Standards......................................................................... 14

Chapter 3 ... 16
3 Subsurface Investigation Guidelines for Highways and Related Structures........... 16
3.1 General Requirements ................................................................................... 16
3.2 Guidelines for Minimum Explorations.......................................................... 17
3.2.1 Roadway Soil Surveys ............................................................................ 17
3.2.2 Structures................................................................................................. 19
3.2.2.1 Bridges .............................................................................................. 19
3.2.2.2 Approach Embankments................................................................... 20
3.2.2.3 Retaining Walls................................................................................. 21
3.2.2.4 Sound Walls ...................................................................................... 21
3.2.2.5 Buildings ........................................................................................... 21
3.2.2.6 Drainage Structures........................................................................... 21
3.2.2.7 High Mast Lighting, and Overhead Sign Structures......................... 22
3.2.2.8 Mast Arms Assemblies and Strain Poles .......................................... 22
3.2.2.9 Tunnels.............................................................................................. 22
3.2.2.10 Other Structures .............................................................................. 22
3.2.3 Borrow Areas .......................................................................................... 22
3.2.4 Retention Ponds....................................................................................... 23
3.3 References ... 27
3.4 Specifications and Standards......................................................................... 27

Chapter 4 ... 28
4 In-situ Testing ... 28
4.1 Standard Penetration Test (SPT) ................................................................... 28
4.2 Cone Penetrometer Test (CPT)...................................................................... 29
4.3 Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Test................................................................. 30
4.4 Dilatometer Test (DMT)................................................................................ 31
4.5 Pressuremeter Test (PMT)............................................................................. 31
4.6 Field Vane Test.............................................................................................. 32
4.7 Percolation Test ............................................................................................. 32
4.8 Infiltration Test .............................................................................................. 32
4.9 Permeability Test........................................................................................... 33
4.9.1 Seepage Tests .......................................................................................... 33
4.9.1.1 Cased Open End Borehole Tests....................................................... 33
4.9.1.2 Exfiltration Test ................................................................................ 34
4.9.2 Pumping Test........................................................................................... 34
4.10 Environmental Corrosion Tests ................................................................... 34
4.10.1 pH of Soils............................................................................................. 34
4.10.2 pH of Water........................................................................................... 34
4.10.3 Chloride Ion in Water............................................................................ 35
4.10.4 Chloride Ion in Soil............................................................................... 35
4.10.5 Sulfate Ion in Brackish Water ............................................................... 35
4.10.6 Sulfates in Soil ...................................................................................... 35
4.10.7 Electrical Resistance of Water .............................................................. 35
4.10.8 Electrical Resistance of Soil.................................................................. 35
4.11 Grout Plug Pull-out Test.............................................................................. 35
4.12 References ................................................................................................... 46

Chapter 5 ... 49
5 Laboratory Tests... 49
5.1 Soils ... 49
5.1.1 Grain-Size Analysis................................................................................. 49
5.1.1.1 Sieve Analysis................................................................................... 49
5.1.1.2 Hydrometer ....................................................................................... 49
5.1.2 Moisture Content..................................................................................... 50
5.1.3 Atterberg Limits ...................................................................................... 50
5.1.3.1 Liquid Limit ...................................................................................... 50
5.1.3.2 Plastic Limit ...................................................................................... 50
5.1.4 Specific Gravity of Soils ......................................................................... 51
5.1.5 Strength Tests.......................................................................................... 51
5.1.5.1 Unconfined Compression Tests ........................................................ 51
5.1.5.2 Triaxial Compression Tests .............................................................. 51
5.1.5.2.1 Unconsolidated-Undrained (UU), or Q Test .............................. 52
5.1.5.2.2 Consolidated-Undrained (CU), or R Test................................... 52
5.1.5.2.3 Consolidated-Drained (CD), or S Test ....................................... 52
5.1.5.3 Direct Shear ...................................................................................... 52
5.1.5.4 Miniature Vane Shear (Torvane) and Pocket Penetrometer ............. 52
5.1.6 Consolidation Test................................................................................... 53
5.1.6.1 One-Dimensional Test ...................................................................... 53
5.1.6.2 Constant Rate of Strain Test ............................................................. 53
5.1.7 Organic Content ...................................................................................... 54
5.1.8 Shrinkage and Swell................................................................................ 54
5.1.8.1 Shrinkage .......................................................................................... 54
5.1.8.2 Swell ................................................................................................. 54
5.1.9 Permeability ............................................................................................ 54
5.1.9.1 Constant-Head Test........................................................................... 54
5.1.9.2 Falling-Head Test.............................................................................. 55
5.1.9.3 Flexible Wall Permeability ............................................................... 55
5.1.10 Environmental Corrosion Tests............................................................. 55
5.1.11 Compaction Tests.................................................................................. 55
5.1.11.1 Standard Proctor ............................................................................. 55
5.1.11.2 Modified Proctor............................................................................. 56
5.1.12 Relative Density Tests........................................................................... 56
5.1.12.1 Maximum Index Density ................................................................ 56
5.1.12.2 Minimum Index Density................................................................. 56
5.1.13 Limerock Bearing Ratio (LBR)............................................................. 56
5.1.14 Resilient Modulus Test (Dynamic) ....................................................... 57
5.2 Rock Cores ... 57
5.2.1 Unconfined Compression Test ................................................................ 57
5.2.2 Absorption and Bulk Specific Gravity .................................................... 57
5.2.3 Splitting Tensile Strength Test................................................................ 57
5.2.4 Triaxial Compression Strength................................................................ 58
5.2.5 Unit Weight of Sample............................................................................ 58
5.2.6 Rock Scour Rate Determination.............................................................. 58
5.3 References ... 58
5.4 Specifications and Standards......................................................................... 59

Chapter 6 ... 61
6 Materials Description, Classification, and Logging................................................ 61
6.1 Materials Description and Classification....................................................... 61
6.1.1 Soils... 61
6.1.1.1 Color ................................................................................................. 62
6.1.1.2 Constituents....................................................................................... 62
6.1.1.3 Grading ............................................................................................. 62
6.1.1.3.1 Coarse-Grained Soils.................................................................. 62
6.1.1.3.1.1 Well-Graded ......................................................................... 62
6.1.1.3.1.2 Poorly-Graded ...................................................................... 62
6.1.1.3.1.3 Gap-Graded .......................................................................... 62
6.1.1.3.2 Fine-Grained Soil ....................................................................... 62
6.1.1.4 Relative Density and Consistency .................................................... 62
6.1.1.5 Friction Angle vs SPT-N .................................................................. 63
6.1.1.6 Moisture Content .............................................................................. 64
6.1.1.7 Particle Angularity and Shape .......................................................... 64
6.1.1.8 Additional Descriptive Terms........................................................... 64
6.1.1.9 Classification..................................................................................... 64
6.1.1.9.1 Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) ............................... 64
6.1.1.9.2 AASHTO Classification System ................................................ 64
6.1.2 Rocks... 65
6.1.2.1 Color ................................................................................................. 65
6.1.2.2 Constituents....................................................................................... 65
6.1.2.3 Weathering........................................................................................ 65
6.1.2.4 Hardness............................................................................................ 65
6.1.2.5 Cementation ...................................................................................... 65
6.1.2.6 Additional Description Terms........................................................... 65
6.2 Logging... 66
6.2.1 Comments on Drilling Procedures and/or Problems............................... 66
6.2.2 Test Results ............................................................................................. 66
6.2.3 Rock Quality Designation (RQD) ........................................................... 66
6.3 References ... 77
6.4 Specifications and Standards......................................................................... 77

Chapter 7 ... 78
7 Field Instrumentation .............................................................................................. 78
7.1 Instrumentation.............................................................................................. 78
7.1.1 Inclinometers (Slope Indicators) ............................................................. 78
7.1.2 Settlement Indicators............................................................................... 79
7.1.3 Piezometers ............................................................................................. 80
7.1.4 Tiltmeters ................................................................................................ 81
7.1.5 Monitoring Wells .................................................................................... 81
7.1.6 Vibration Monitoring .............................................................................. 81
7.1.7 Special Instrumentation........................................................................... 81
7.2 References ... 85
7.3 Specifications and Standards......................................................................... 85

Chapter 8 ... 86
8 Analysis and Design................................................................................................ 86
8.1 Roadway Embankment Materials.................................................................. 86
8.1.1 Limits of Unsuitable Materials................................................................ 87
8.1.2 Limerock Bearing Ratio (LBR)............................................................... 87
8.1.3 Resilient Modulus (Mr) ........................................................................... 87
8.1.4 Corrosivity............................................................................................... 88
8.1.5 Drainage .................................................................................................. 88
8.1.6 Earthwork Factors ................................................................................... 88
8.1.7 Other Considerations............................................................................... 88
8.2 Foundation Types .......................................................................................... 88
8.2.1 Spread Footings....................................................................................... 88
8.2.1.1 Design Procedure .............................................................................. 89
8.2.1.2 Considerations................................................................................... 89
8.2.2 Driven Piles ............................................................................................. 89
8.2.2.1 Design Procedure .............................................................................. 89
8.2.2.2 Considerations................................................................................... 89
8.2.3 Drilled Shafts........................................................................................... 90
8.2.3.1 Design Procedure .............................................................................. 90
8.2.3.2 Considerations................................................................................... 90
8.2.4 Auger-Cast Piles...................................................................................... 90
8.2.4.1 Design Procedure .............................................................................. 90
8.2.5 Micro Piles .............................................................................................. 90
8.2.5.1 Design Procedure .............................................................................. 90
8.3 Foundation Analysis...................................................................................... 91
8.3.1 Lateral Loads........................................................................................... 91
8.3.2 Scour... 91
8.3.3 Downdrag................................................................................................ 91
8.3.4 Construction Requirements ..................................................................... 91
8.4 Embankment Settlement/Stability ................................................................. 92
8.4.1 Settlement................................................................................................ 92
8.4.1.1 Design Procedure .............................................................................. 92
8.4.1.2 Considerations................................................................................... 92
8.4.1.3 Possible Solutions ............................................................................. 92
8.4.2 Stability ................................................................................................... 92
8.4.2.1 Design Procedure .............................................................................. 93
8.4.2.2 Considerations................................................................................... 93
8.4.2.3 Possible Solutions ............................................................................. 93
8.5 Retaining Wall Design................................................................................... 93
8.5.1 Gravity Walls .......................................................................................... 94
8.5.2 Counterfort Walls.................................................................................... 94
8.5.3 MSE Walls .............................................................................................. 94
8.5.4 Sheet Pile Walls ...................................................................................... 95
8.5.5 Soil Nail Walls ........................................................................................ 95
8.5.6 Soldier Pile/Panel Walls.......................................................................... 95
8.6 Steepened Slopes ........................................................................................... 95
8.6.1 Design Procedure................................................................................. 95
8.7 Computer Programs used in FDOT ............................................................... 98
8.8 References ................................................................................................... 105

Chapter 9 ... 107
9 Presentation of Geotechnical Information............................................................. 107
9.1 Roadway Soil Survey .................................................................................. 107
9.1.1 General Information .............................................................................. 107
9.1.2 Conclusion and Recommendations ....................................................... 108
9.1.3 Roadway Soils Survey (Report of Tests) Sheet .................................... 108
9.1.4 Roadway Cross Sections ....................................................................... 108
9.2 Structures Investigation ............................................................................... 109
9.2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................... 109
9.2.2 Scope of Investigation........................................................................... 109
9.2.3 Interpretation of Subsurface Conditions ............................................... 109
9.2.4 Existing Structures Survey and Evaluation........................................... 110
9.2.5 Structure Foundation Analysis and Recommendations ........................ 111
9.2.5.1 Spread Footings .............................................................................. 111
9.2.5.2 Driven Piles..................................................................................... 112
9.2.5.3 Drilled Shafts .................................................................................. 113
9.2.6 Approach Embankments Considerations .............................................. 114
9.2.6.1 Settlement ....................................................................................... 114
9.2.6.2 Stability........................................................................................... 114
9.2.6.3 Construction Considerations........................................................... 114
9.2.7 Retaining Walls and Seawalls ............................................................... 114
9.2.8 Steepened Slopes................................................................................... 115
9.2.9 Technical Special Provisions ................................................................ 115
9.2.10 Appendix ............................................................................................. 116
9.3 Final or Supplementary Report.................................................................... 116
9.4 Signing and Sealing..................................................................................... 117
9.5 Distribution.................................................................................................. 117
9.6 Plan and Specification Review .................................................................... 118
9.7 Electronic Files ............................................................................................ 118
9.9 Unwanted... 118
9.10 Specifications and Standards ..................................................................... 124

Chapter 10 ... 125
10 Construction and Post-Construction.................................................................... 125
10.1 Dynamic Pile Driving Analysis................................................................. 125
10.2 Dynamic Monitoring of Pile Driving ........................................................ 125
10.3 Load Tests.................................................................................................. 126
10.3.1 Static Load Tests ................................................................................. 126
10.3.3 Osterberg Load Tests .......................................................................... 127
10.4 Pile/Drilled Shaft Damage Assessment..................................................... 127
10.4.1 Pile Integrity Testing........................................................................... 127
10.4.2 Crosshole Sonic Logging .................................................................... 127
10.4.3 Gamma-Gamma Density Logging ...................................................... 127
10.5 Drilled Shaft Construction......................................................................... 127
10.6 Shaft Inspection Device (SID)................................................................... 128
10.7 Field Instrumentation Monitoring ............................................................. 128
10.8 Troubleshooting......................................................................................... 128
10.9 Records ... 129
10.10 References ............................................................................................... 135
10.11 Specifications and Standards................................................................... 135

Chapter 11 ... 137
11 Design-Build Projects ......................................................................................... 137
11.1 Planning and Development Phase: ............................................................ 137
11.1.1 Department’s Geotechnical Engineer Responsibilities ....................... 137
11.1.2 Design-build Team Responsibilities ................................................... 137
11.2 Technical Proposals & Bidding Phase....................................................... 137
11.2.1 Department’s Geotechnical Engineer Responsibilities ....................... 137
11.2.2 Design-Build Team Responsibilities................................................... 137
11.3 Design/Construction Phase........................................................................ 138
11.3.1 Department’s Geotechnical Engineer.................................................. 138
11.3.2 Design-Build Team ............................................................................. 138

Appendix A ... 140
Determination of Design Skin Friction for Drilled Shafts Socketed in the Florida
Limestone ... 140
Appendix B –... 147
Design Guidelines for Auger Cast Piles for Sound Walls ....................................... 147
Appendix C... 153
Specifications and Standards.................................................................................... 153
ASTM... 154
AASHTO... 157
Florida Test Method .......................................................................................... 159
Appendix D ... 161
Reference List ... 161
AASHTO... 162
NCHRP... 162
TRB ... 162
FDOT... 162
FHWA ... 162
Military ... 164
Other Federal ... 164
Misc ... 164

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Soils and Foundations Handbook April 2004

 
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